Calcium Carbonate is having a widefield,which is used in many areas of our lives is a filler. Inorganicmineralcalcite ,a plurality of different sectors of production costs of fillerthat optimizesthe most importante.
Micronized Calcite sectoral using :paint&coating,paper,plastic,film,cable,pipe,textile,food,detergent,medicine ext.
Tecnodieci Calcium Carbonate using ;also ceramic Sector,glaze,frit and boyd formulation
Calcite is a mineral name and the chemical structure of this mineral, which forms carbonated rocks, is CaCO3. It is crystalline in various shapes (crystallized in the form of rombaeder, skalenoeder) glassy brightness and colorless transparent structure. It is easily ground and a white powder is obtained. Its hardness is in the range of 3 on the Moh's scale and 2.6-2.7. In our country, the mineral produced under the name of calcite is the main mineral of carbonated rocks (limestone, marble, chalk). These formations include;
•Limestones (not metamorphism): White ones of primary rocks are milled and evaluated in countries such as France and Egypt.
•Marbles: It is formed by the recrystallization of limestones with metaphorism. In our country, marble is used in the construction industry and in the micronized filling industry, which is the subject of this report, white-colored and large crystals.
•Crystal calcites: It occurs in the form of pure transparent crystals in crack fillings between limestone formation. Generally, it cannot be commercially produced.
is happening. Among them, the most whiteness are the large crystall marbles. However, the energy used in grinding is higher than the others. The Dardanelles Karabiga region is one of the largest calcite formations in Turkey. Calcite deposits formed in granite contaminants are high lyngo high and easy to grind, but are lower in white than formations in the Aegean region and Nigde. There are marble beds in Bajramic, Biga, Ezine.
Balikesir Erdek and Manyas have very rich large crystal marble beds and quarries. There are mountains of stars in Thrace, marble and Dolomitic marble deposits in Bursa Orhaneli. Bursa Orhangazi, Keles, Inegol have rich marble deposits, but production is done on a very small scale. Izmir Tire, Golmarmara, Akhisar, Bagged marble beds are available. The degree of whiteness is lower than previously stated. The crystal structure of Muğla Bedn and Kavaklıdere Region is smaller but its chemical structure is purer, it has very rich marble beds that are easy to grind and its whiteness is very high. Nigde Region has a very rich reserve and the calcite deposits here are the whitest in Turkey. There are calcite quarries in this region that increase production very quickly. Today, many producers supply raw materials from these quarries in Nigde Region.
In recent years, investments in Nigde have increased very seriously. The above-mentioned regions have a very rich reserve whose reserve can be expressed in 10 million tons. Apart from these, it is possible to find calcite formations in almost every region of Anatolia where production and reserves have not yet been determined. The sum of known reserves can be expressed in hundreds of millions of tons. The most important points of interest are the reserves in Turkey;
•CaCO3 percentage is high.
•Their impurities such as silica, iron and magnesium are very low.
•The degree of whiteness after grinding is very high.
The height of whiteness in ore is always preferred because it saves titanium dioxide in paint and plastic and optical whitener on paper.
Calcites milled in dry or wet system in micronized sizes;
•Plastics and cable industry
•Plaster, paste, grout ingredient, gypsum production in construction sector
•Food industry (not yet developed in Turkey))
•Ceramics industry (60-100 micron size)
•Carpet base, ground linoleum sector
•They are used in coal plants to prevent air pollution.
Less consumption means less use of this optical whitener cellulose. Thus, calcite is made serious contributions to environmental protection. The paper industry in the world milled precipitated calcite and calcite PCC used in the raw material filling about half of it). For the most part, to be used in the fill produced calcite, 25-30% also coated (coating) is calcite. In Europe generally, `then milled with 2 micron gold juicy calcite, 75% water and 25% solid is used as filler in the paper industry. Again, the 90% of entries for below 2 microns, which is coated calcite milled aqueous coating are used. In Turkey, Seka filling the grain distribution of calcite and some private institutions are better, but 2 micron six B-44 and fillings are used in dry milled calcite, calcite and even some paper manufacturers are using even six 6-38 around 2 micron
b) Paint industry paint industry 1,3,5,20,40 micron size dry milled calcite uses. The most requested product group and a 5-micron calcite is. Calcite, used in interior and exterior coatings water-based architectural coatings, in %-35% in the paint are added. Calcite and titanium dioxide used in paints as an extender reduces the consumption of the surface coating provides. Paint industry chemicals demand in the market due to the increase in the price of dyes is economical fazlalasmis. Calcite in paint industry in the last five years consumption has increased at a rate of so P.
c) Calcite of the Plastics Industry, plastic furniture, pipes, automotive, etc. milled as in the production of many plastic products in its natural state, covered both are used. Sometimes calcium stearate with stearic acid coating is made of mostly. Polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), Thermoplastic (TPES) and PVC plastic resins principally consist of calcite is used as filler. Similar to the use of calcite fillers in the plastics industry each year has increased. The color, purity, calcite is used as filler in the plastics industry for many reasons such as cheapness.
d) in the construction industry plaster, putty, floor padding, plaster production in Turkey, new emerging ready plaster, putty, etc. the use of filler in the white areas of Europe and the United States is very common. In the construction industry white, cement-based rough plaster when mixed with the polymer powder and applied to the wall plaster and Putty, plaster, putty, paint and even a pen are solved in the process. In various sizes milled calcite, gypsum, cement, polymer powder and is mixed with the binder have been extensively used in the field of construction. The construction sector is the sector consuming the highest amount of calcite in terms of tonnage. The use of calcite in the gypsum industry and, consequently, a very large increase in consumption in recent years has shown.
e) an adhesive polymer is mixed with calcite fill, construction and have been extensively used in the automotive industry. Development of adhesive industry has been accelerated and the total amount of consumption estimated at the very top of.
f) food and feed Sector, Micronized calcite biscuits, bread, bubblegum, chocolate, etc. is used as an additive in foodstuffs. Due to the color purity and reduce costs, are used indirectly as a source of calcium.
g) in the ceramic industry Calcite (CaCO3), after being ground into sizes of 40-100 microns in the ceramic industry is participating prescriptions. The ceramic sector in the last five years has shown a rapid increase in the use of calcite. Carpet floor and linoleum, although it may be referred within the plastics industry as it is used in a size of 40-60 microns was also mentioned. Are used at an increasingly faster rate.
Calcium carbonate is used in paper mill as a filler material in the alkaline papermaking process. Now a days Calcium carbonate dominant over other papermaking filler materials; though at the first stage of papermaking kaolin was 1st choice. The main reason behind the preference of calcium carbonate is the demand for brighter and bulkier paper.
There are significant benefits to the use of calcium carbonate in the al¬kaline papermaking process. But Calcium Carbonate filler is unsuitable in acid papermaking and wood-containing paper.
Usually Calcium carbonate occurs in three natural forms such as limestone, chalk and marble. Naturally it is forms between the reactions of calcium salt and carbon dioxide. This process is still going on in the Oceans.
There are two types of calcium carbonate used in paper mill – ground calcium carbonate (GCC) and precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC).
Ground calcium carbonate (GCC)
Ground calcium carbonate is manufactured by grinding limestone or marble because of their high brightness and purity. Generally the particle shape of ground calcium carbonate is rhombohedral. This filler material is used in alkaline wood free papermaking process. The brightness of GCC is 86-95%.
Advantages of Ground calcium carbonate (GCC)
GCC is cheaper and it has high brightness.
GCC creates a porous surface on the paper sheet due to its rhombohedral particle shape.
GCC is hydrophobic as a result it is liberate water more rapidly.
Lower binder demand
Disadvantages of Ground calcium carbonate (GCC)
The rough particle shape of GCC creates a problem; it is more abrasive and shortens the life of paper machine clothes.
Precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC)
Precipitated calcium carbonate is the form of CaCO3 which is manufactured by chemical reactions and the process is known as carbonation process. PCC improve the drawback of GCC, it is provide better gloss and opacity properties for the paper. Because of the structure of PCC is different from the structure of GCC. The crystal structure of PCC are needle-shaped, rhombohedral(cubic), scalenohedral (triangular) and prismatic. The brightness of PCC is 90-97%.
Advantages Precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC)
Increase machine speed and productivity.
Improve water drainage
Improve machine runnability
Improve print quality
Cost-effective papermaking process
Increased opacity and brightness
PCC is less abrasive than GCC
Reduce fiber consumption compared with GCC or talc
More retention compare than other paper fillers